A honeybee queen surrounded by her retinue. Image: Helga Heilmann. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000532.g001
The nature-nurture debate is a "giant step" closer to being resolved after scientists studying bees documented how environmental inputs can modify our genetic hardware. The researchers uncovered extensive molecular differences in the brains of worker bees and queen bees which develop along very different paths when put on different diets.
The research was led by Professor Ryszard Maleszka of The Australian National University's College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, working with colleagues from the German Cancer Institute in Heidelberg, Germany and will be published next week in the online, open access journal PLoS Biology.
Their work reveals for the first time the intricacies of the environmentally-influenced chemical 'marking of DNA' called DNA methylation, which has the capacity to alter gene expression without affecting the genetic code – a process referred to as 'epigenetic', or above the genome.
"This marking determines which genes are to be fine-tuned in the brains of workers and queens to produce their extraordinarily different behaviours. This finding is not only crucial, but far reaching, because the enzymes that mark DNA in the bee are also the enzymes that mark DNA in human brains," said Professor Maleszka.
"In the bees, more than 550 genes are differentially marked between the brain of the queen and the brain of the worker, which contributes to their profound divergence in behaviour. This study provides the first documentation of extensive molecular differences that may allow honey bees to generate different reproductive and behavioural outcomes as a result of differential feeding with royal jelly."
Professor Maleszka said that the work goes a long way to answering one of life's biggest questions.
"This study represents a giant step towards answering one of the big questions in the nature-nurture debate, because it shows how the outside world is linked to DNA via diet, and how environmental inputs can transiently modify our genetic hardware," he said.
"Similar studies are impossible to do on human brains, so the humble
honey bees are the pioneers in this fascinating area."
In this sweeping and insightful history, Henry Kissinger turns for the first time at book-length to a country he has known intimately for decades, and whose modern relations with the West he helped shape. Drawing on historical records as well as his conversations with Chinese leaders over the past forty years, Kissinger examines how China has approached diplomacy, strategy, and negotiation throughout its history, and reflects on the consequences for the global balance of power in the 21st century.
Since no other country can claim a more powerful link to its ancient past and classical principles, any attempt to understand China's future world role must begin with an appreciation of its long history. For centuries, China rarely encountered other societies of comparable size and sophistication; it was the "Middle Kingdom," treating the peoples on its periphery as vassal states. At the same time, Chinese statesmen-facing threats of invasion from without, and the contests of competing factions within-developed a canon of strategic thought that prized the virtues of subtlety, patience, and indirection over feats of martial prowess.
In On China, Kissinger examines key episodes in Chinese foreign policy from the classical era to the present day, with a particular emphasis on the decades since the rise of Mao Zedong. He illuminates the inner workings of Chinese diplomacy during such pivotal events as the initial encounters between China and modern European powers, the formation and breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, the Korean War, Richard Nixon's historic trip to Beijing, and three crises in the Taiwan Straits. Drawing on his extensive personal experience with four generation of Chinese leaders, he brings to life towering figures such as Mao, Zhou Enlai, and Deng Xiaoping, revealing how their different visions have shaped China's modern destiny.
With his singular vantage on U.S.-China relations, Kissinger traces the evolution of this fraught but crucial relationship over the past 60 years, following its dramatic course from estrangement to strategic partnership to economic interdependence, and toward an uncertain future. With a final chapter on the emerging superpower's 21st-century world role, On China provides an intimate historical perspective on Chinese foreign affairs from one of the premier statesmen of the 20th century.
Page: 26: Opening of "The Art of War"
War is a grave affair of the state;
It is a place of Life & Death,
a road to survival & extinction,
a matter to be pondered carefully.
prudence is the value most to be cherised.
must never mobilize its soldiers out of anger.
must never engage in battle out of spite.
turn to pleasure, spite can turn to joy.
nation destroyed cannot be put together again.
person cannot be brought back to life.
enlightened ruler is prudent, the effective general is
the way to keep a nation at peace and an army intact.
excellence lies in not in winning every battle but in
defeating the enemy without ever fighting.
highest form of warfare is to attack the enemy's
to attack his alliances, the next to attack armies,
the lowest form is to attack cities. Siege
warfare is a last resort...
the enemy without doing battle, captures the city
without laying seige, overthrows the enemy state
without protracted war.
victorious army is victorious first and seeks battle
later; the defeated army does battle first and seeks
inability; when deploying troops, appear not to be.
appear far; when far appear near.
Page: 35: Lord George Macartney
Mission to China 1793: to address
the abuses the British felt they were being
subjected to by their Chinese trading partners in
China. (only the actually communications between the
empires in included, you must read "Kissinger On
China", to see the most excellent commentary
regarding these communications and the context in
which they occured.)
assumptions of the Chinese world order were
particularly offensive to Britain (the red-haired
barbarians" in some Chinese records). As the
premeir Western commercial and naval power, Britian
bridled at its assigned role in the cosmology of the
Middle Kingdon, whose army, the British noted, still
primarily used bows abnd arrows and whose navy was
practically nonexistent. British traders
resented the increasing amout of "squeeze" extracted
by the designated Chinese merchants at Guangzhou,
through which Chinese regulations required that all
Western trade be conducted. They sought access
to the rest of the Chinese market beyond the
southeast coast. Thus it was in this context
that Macartney mission was launched as an attempt to
rememdy the situation in a well thought out, good
will fashion. They turned
out to be one of the most humiliatoing
communications in the annals of British diplomacy.
from the Emperor began by remarking on King
George's "respectful humility" in sending a tribute
mission to China:
King, live beyond the confines of many seas,
nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to
partake of the benefits of our civilization, you
have dispatched a mission respectfully bearing
As to your entreaty to send one of your nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of your country's trade with China, this request cannot possibly be entertained... [He could not] be allowed libertuy of movement and the priviledge of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by his residence in our midst.
sent an Ambassador to reside in your country, how
could you possibly make for hum the requisite
arrangements ? Europe consists of many other
nations besides your own: if each and all demanded
to be represented at our Court, how could we
possibly consent ? The thing is utterly
assert that your reverence for Our Celestial
Dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our
civilization, our ceremonies and code of laws
differ so completely from your own that, even if
your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of
our civilization, you could not possibly
transplant our manners and customs to your alien
and costly objects do not interest me. If I
have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by
you, O King, are to be accepted, this was soley in
consideration for the spirit which prompted you to
dispatch them from afar... As your
Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all
have accordingly stated the facts to you in
detail, and it is your bounden duty to reverently
appreciate my feelings and to obey these
instructions henceforward for all time, so that
you may enjoy the blessings of perpetual peace.
The Emperor, clearly unfamilar with the capacity of Western leaders for violent rapaciousness, was playing with fire, though he did not know it. The assessment which Macartney left China was ominous:
[A] couple of English frigates would be an overmatch for the whole naval force of their empire... in half a summer they could totally destroy all the navigation of their coasts and reduce the inhabitants of the maritime provinces, who subsist chiefly on fish, to absolute famine.
Page 438: 24 & 12 Classic Chinese Character explainations restricted to high Chinese Officials during Deng Xiaoping's term.
Observe carefully; secure our position; cope with affairs calmly; hide our capacities and bide our time; be good at maintaining a low profile; and never claim leadership.
Enemy troops outside the walls. They are stronger than we. We should be mainly on the defensive.
To see the context of these instructions, please read "Kissinger On China", for without the context, it is not possible to understand why they were given.
Table of Contents:
Note on Chinese Spellings xi
Chapter 1 The Singularity of China 5
The Era of Chinese Preeminence 8
Concepts of International Relations: Impartiality or Equality? 16
Chinese Realpolitik and Sun Tzu's Art of War 22
Chapter 2 The Kowtow Question and the Opium War 33
The Macartney Mission 35
The Clash of Two World Orders: The Opium War 45
Qiying's Diplomacy: Soothing the Barbarians 51
Chapter 3 From Preeminence to Decline 57
Wei Yuan's Blueprint: "Using Barbarians Against Barbarians," Learning Their Techniques 60
The Erosion of Authority: Domestic Upheavals and then Challenge of Foreign Encroachments 64
Managing Decline 69
The Challenge of Japan 77
The Boxer Uprising and the New Era of Warring States 86
Chapter 4 Mao's Continuous Revolution 91
Mao and the Great Harmony 92
Mao and International Relations: The Empty City Stratagem, Chinese Deterrence, and the Quest for Psychological Advantage 97
The Continuous Revolution and the Chinese People 106
Chapter 5 Triangular Diplomacy and the Korean War 113
Acheson and the Lure of Chinese Titoism 118
Kim Il-sung and the Outbreak of War 122
American Intervention: Resisting Aggression 129
Chinese Reactions: Another Approach to Deterrence 133
SinoAmerican Confrontation 143
Chapter 6 China Confronts Both Superpowers 148
The First'Taiwan Strait Crisis 151
Diplomatic Interlude with the United States 158
Mao, Khrushchev, and the Sino-Soviet Split 161
The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 172
Chapter 7 A Decade of Crises 181
The Great Leap Forward 181
The Himalayan Border Dispute and the 1962 Sino-Indian War 184
The Cultural Revolution 192
Was There a Lost Opportunity? 197
Chapter 8 The Road to Reconciliation 202
The Chinese Strategy 203
The American Strategy 213
First Steps-Clashes at the Ussuri River 215
Chapter 9 Resumption of Relations: First Encounters with Mao and Zhou 236
Zhou Enlai 241
Nixon in China: The Meeting with Mao 255
The Nixon-Zhou Dialogue 262
The Shanghai Communique 267
The Aftermath 273
Chapter 10 The Quasi-Alliance: Conversations with Mao 275
The "Horizontal Line": Chinese Approaches to Containment 277
The Impact of Watergate 292
The End of the Mao Era 294
The Succession Crisis 294
The Fall of Zhou Enlai 297
Final Meetings with Mao: The Swallows and the Coming of the Storm 303
Chapter 12 The Indestructible Deng 321
Deng's First Return to Power 322
The Death of Leaders-Hua Guofeng 327
Deng's Ascendance-"Reforrn and Opening Up" 329
Chapter 13 "Touching the Tiger's Buttocks": The Third Vietnam War 340
Vietnam: Confounder of Great Powers 341
Deng's Foreign Policy Dialogue with America and Normalization 348
Deng's Journeys 356
Deng's Visit to America and the New Definition of Alliance 360
The Third Vietnam War 367
Chapter 14 Reagan and the Advent of Normalcy 377
Taiwan Arms Sales and the Third Communiqué 381
China and the Superpowers-The New Equilibrium 387
Deng's Reform Program 396
Chapter 15 Tiananmen 408
American Dilemmas 411
The Fang Lizhi Controversy 428
The 12- and 24-Character Statements 437
Chapter 16 What Kind of Reform? Deng's Southern Tour 440
Chapter 17 A Roller Coaster Ride Toward Another Reconciliation: The Jiang Zemin Era 447
China and the Disintegrating Soviet Union 456
The Clinton Administration and China Policy 461
The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis 471
China's Resurgence and Jiang's Reflections 478
Chapter 18 The New Millennium 487
Differences in Perspective 493
How to Define Strategic Opportunity 497
The National Destiny Debate-The Triumphalist View 503
Dai Bingguo-A Reaffirmation of Peaceful Rise 508
Epilogue: Does History Repeat Itself?
The Crowe Memorandum 514
Toward a Pacific Community? 527